Thik Social Problem: POLITICAL SYSTEMS (Traditional Systems, Charismatic Systems, Rational-Legal Authority, Monarchy)

POLITICAL SYSTEMS

(Traditional Systems, Charismatic Systems, Rational-Legal Authority, Monarchy)
From : (John D. Carl, Think Social Problems 2013, (Pearson Education, 2013)



Political sociology and political science are connected. Most colleges require students to enroll in an American government course, and anyone who has already taken that class should see that these two disciplines have important things in common.
Political science uses sociology in its research methodology and theory development. Similarities between institutional and structure components of the political live, as well as the inclusion of macro and micro components of the social life, make the study of political sociology a legitimate branch of sociology.[1]
In the area where sociology meets political science, both disciplines focus on cultural and global arenas. Culture takes us away from a nationalistic and simplistic understanding of what makes government work. Globalism causes us to identity the changing importance of geography. Government and state power relationship are related to a complex series of interactions between nations that once were unrelated. This complexity shows us that the social and political worlds are highly interrelated. Sociologist Max Weber believed that political systems are based on three forms of authority: traditional, charismatic, and rational-legal.[2]
In traditional systems, social power is achieved through general respect for patterns of government. For example, English monarchs such as Charles I and Henry IV gained and held power because of family line age and the tradition of monarchy. Modern examples include the government of Saudi Arabia, a traditional manarchy backed by a consultative body of officials. In 2005, King Fahd died, leaving the throne to his brother, Crown Prince Abdullah; in return, Abdullah pledged to leave the throne to another brother in the event of his death.[3] Countries that follow traditional systems are generally made up of people who share similar worldviews and, often, religious principles.
What do Nelson Mandela, Bill Clinton, and Aung San Suu Kyi have in common? All are known to be charismatic leaders. In charismatic systems, power is gained by a leader who has extraordinary personal attributes. Such leaders inspire their followers and often initiate influential movements. In the mid-1900s, Fidel Castro sparked revolution in Cuba when he openly protested the existing dictatorial regime. Many contribute Castro’s rise in power to his powerful public speaking skills and charismatic personality.
Rational-legal authority stems from the rules and standards officialy sanctified by a society. For example, American citizens have a written set of rights and regulations in the Constitution. If a U.S. president were to declare himself king, it would go against agreed-upon rules and be fiercely rejected bu society. However, if a woman were to walk into a voting boot on election Day, most people would find it completely rational, in concurrence with 19th Amandement. Likewise, a U.S. president has the constitutional authority to make executive decisions, such as deploing U.S. troops, but cannot “declare war.” Authority and power are important component of any government; social problems in the political realm manipulated election result that violated their nation’s retional legal authority.
The amount of power that a leader has is often dependent on the type of government under which a nation operates.



[1] Alexander Hicks, “Is Political Sociology Informed by Political Science?” Social Force, 1995. 73(4): 1219-1229.
[2] Graham Taylor, The New Political Sociology: Power, Ideology and Identity in the Age of Complexity. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.
[3] BBC News, “King Fahd of Saudi Arabia Dies,” August 1, 2005, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/4734175.stm.
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